Use of waste paper ash or wood ash as substitution to fly ash in production of geopolymer concrete

Main Article Content

Haider M. Owaid
Muna M. Al-Rubaye
Haider M. Al-Baghdadi

Keywords : geopolymer concrete, GC, fly ash, FA, waste paper ash, WPA, wood ash, WA, alkaline solution
Large quantities of paper and wood waste are generated every day, the disposal of these waste products is a problem because it requires huge space for their disposal. The possibility of using these wastes can mitigate the environmental problems related to them. This study presents an investigation on the feasibility of inclusion of waste paper ash (WPA) or wood ash (WA) as replacement materials for fly ash (FA) class F in preparation geopolymer concrete (GC). The developed geopolymer concretes for this study were prepared at replacement ratios of FA by WPA or WA of 25, 50, 75 and 100% in addition to a control mix containing 100% of FA. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) are used as alkaline activators with 1M and 10M of sodium hydroxide solution.The geopolymer concretes have been evaluated with respect to the workability, the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the workability of the control GC mix and the developed GC mixes incorporating WPA or WA. Also, the results showed that, by incorporating of 25–50% PWA or 25% WA, the mechanical properties (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength) of GC mixes slightly decreased. While replacement with 75–100% WPA or with 50–100% WA has reduced these mechanical properties of GC mixes. As a result, there is a feasibility of partial replacement of FA by up to 50% WPA or 25% WA in preparation of the geopolymer concrete.

Article Details

How to Cite
Owaid, H. M., Al-Rubaye, M. M., & Al-Baghdadi, H. M. (2021). Use of waste paper ash or wood ash as substitution to fly ash in production of geopolymer concrete. Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Studies (SREES), 30(3), 464–476.

Abdulkareem, O.A., Ramli, M. & Matthews, J.C. (2019). Production of geopolymer mortar system containing high calcium biomass wood ash as a partial substitution to fly ash: an early age evaluation. Composites Part B: Engineering, 174, 106941.

ASTM International [ASTM] (2002). Standard test method for flexural strength of concrete (ASTM C78-02). West Conshohocken (PA): ASTM International.

ASTM International [ASTM] (2004). Standard test method for splitting tensile strength of cylindrical concrete specimens (ASTM C496-04). West Conshohocken (PA): ASTM International.

ASTM International [ASTM] (2005). Standard test method for slump of hydraulic-cement concrete (ASTM C143/C 143M-05a). West Conshohocken (PA): ASTM International.

ASTM International [ASTM] (2008). Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete (ASTM C618-08a). West Conshohocken (PA): ASTM International.

ASTM International [ASTM] (2017). Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete (ASTM C494-C494M). West Conshohocken (PA): ASTM International.

Astutiningsih, S. & Liu, Y. (2005). Geopolymerisation of Australian slag with effective dissolution by the alkali. In Proceedings of the World Congress Geopolymer (pp. 69-73). Geopolymer Institute: Saint Quentin, France.

Bai, J., Chaipanich, A., Kinuthia, J.M., O’Farrell, M., Sabir, B.B., Wild, S. & Lewis, M.H. (2003). Compressive strength and hydration of wastepaper sludge ash–ground granulated blastfurnace slag blended pastes. Cement and Concrete Research, 33(8), 1189-1202.

British Standards Institute [BSI] (2000). Testing concrete. Part 116: Method for determination of compressive strength of concrete cubes (BS 1881-116:1983). London: British Standards Institute.

Chowdhury, S., Maniar, A. & Suganya, O.M. (2015). Strength development in concrete with wood ash blended cement and use of soft computing models to predict strength parameters. Journal of Advanced Research, 6(6), 907-913.

Davidovits, J. (2020). Geopolymer chemistry and applications. 5th ed. Saint-Quentin, France: Geopolymer Institute.

Duxson, P., Fernández-Jiménez, A., Provis, J.L., Lukey, G.C., Palomo, A. & van Deventer, J.S. (2007). Geopolymer technology: the current state of the art. Journal of Materials Science, 42(9), 2917-2933.

Ekaputri, J.J. & Junaedi, S. (2017). Effect of curing temperature and fiber on metakaolin- -based geopolymer. Procedia Engineering, 171, 572-583.

Etiegni, L. & Campbell, A.G. (1991). Physical and chemical characteristics of wood ash. Bioresource Technology, 37(2), 173-178.

Fairbairn, E.M., Americano, B.B., Cordeiro, G.C., Paula, T.P., Toledo Filho, R.D. & Silvoso, M.M. (2010). Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(9), 1864-1871.

Fernandez-Jimenez, A.M., Palomo, A. & Lopez-Hombrados, C. (2006). Engineering properties of alkali-activated fly ash concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 103(2), 106-112.

Fernández-Jiménez, A., García-Lodeiro, I. & Palomo, A. (2007). Durable characteristics of alkali activated fly ashes. Journal of Material Sciences, 42, 3055-3065.

Frías, M., García, R., Vigil, R. & Ferreiro, S. (2008). Calcination of art paper sludge waste for the use as a supplementary cementing material. Applied Clay Science, 42(1-2), 189-193.

García, R., Villa, R.V. de la, Vegas, I., Frías, M. & Rojas, M.S. de (2008). The pozzolanic properties of paper sludge waste. Construction and Building Materials, 22(7), 1484-1490.

Gartner, E. (2004). Industrially interesting approaches to “low-CO2” cements. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(9), 1489-1498.

Hardjito, D., Wallah, S.E., Sumajouw, D.M. & Rangan, B.V. (2004). On the development of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Materials Journal, 101(6), 467-472.

Iraqi Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control [ICASQC] (1984). Iraqi standards for natural aggregate resources for concrete (IQS 45/1984). Baghdad: Iraqi Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control (translated from Arabic edition).

Ishimoto, H., Origuchi, T. & Yasuda, M. (2000). Use of papermaking sludge as new material. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 12(4), 310-313.

Letelier, V., Henríquez-Jara, B.I., Manosalva, M. & Moriconi, G. (2019). Combined use of waste concrete and glass as a replacement for mortar raw materials. Waste Management, 94, 107-119.

Luga, E. & Peqini, K. (2019). The Influence of Oxide Content on the Properties of Fly Ash/Slag Geopolymer Mortars Activated with NaOH. Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 63(4), 1217-1224.

Malaszkiewicz, D. & Jastrzebski, D. (2018). Lightweight self-compacting concrete with sintered fly-ash aggregate. Scientific Review – Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 27(3), 328-337.

Mehta, A. & Siddique, R. (2018). Sustainable geopolymer concrete using ground granulated blast furnace slag and rice husk ash: Strength and permeability properties. Journal of Cleaner Production, 205, 49-57.

Mozaffari, E., Kinuthia, J.M., Bai, J. & Wild, S. (2009). An investigation into the strength development of wastepaper sludge ash blended with ground granulated blastfurnace slag. Cement and Concrete Research, 39(10), 942-949.

Naik, T.R., Kraus, R.N., & Siddique, R. (2003). Controlled low-strength materials containing mixtures of coal ash and new pozzolanic material. Materials Journal, 100(3), 208-215.

Pachamuthu, S. & Thangaraju, P. (2017). Effect of incinerated paper sludge ash on fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Građevinar, 69(9), 851-859.

Rangan, B.V. (2008). Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Perth: Curtin University of Technology.

Risdanareni, P., Karjanto, A. & Khakim, F. (2016). Physical properties of volcanic ash based geopolymer concrete. Materials Science Forum, 841, 1-6.

Ryu, G.S., Lee, Y.B., Koh, K.T. & Chung, Y.S. (2013). The mechanical properties of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete with alkaline activators. Construction and Building Materials, 47, 409-418.

Shi, C., Wu, Y., Riefler, C. & Wang, H. (2005). Characteristics and pozzolanic reactivity of glass powders. Cement and Concrete Research, 35(5), 987-993.

Tam, V.W., Soomro, M. & Evangelista, A.C.J. (2018). A review of recycled aggregate in concrete applications (2000–2017). Construction and Building Materials, 172, 272-292.

Thaarrini, J. & Ramasamy, V. (2016). Properties of foundry sand, ground granulated blast furnace slag and bottom ash based geopolymers under ambient conditions. Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 60(2), 159-168.

Turner, L.K., & Collins, F.G. (2013). Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions: A comparison between geopolymer and OPC cement concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 43, 125-130.

Udoeyo, F.F., Inyang, H., Young, D.T. & Oparadu, E.E. (2006). Potential of wood waste ash as an additive in concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 18(4), 605-611.



Download data is not yet available.
Recommend Articles