Main Article Content
An increase in Indonesian forest fires has infuriated Malaysia and Indonesia, where residents are inhaling smoke from peat and trees burned hundreds of miles away. The global COVID-19 lockdowns caused carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased seen over Malaysia and Indonesia regions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the CO distribution over Malaysia and Indonesia, within the period of January 2011 to December 2021. The impact of lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 to CO concentration over Malaysia and Indonesia also was reviewed. This study utilizes MERRA-2 dataset provided by Giovanni interface. Five areas were found to be affected the most during the study period which is Kuala Lumpur, Jambi, Riau, Palembang, and Jakarta. Carbon monoxide concentration over the studied region exhibits a strong seasonality showing maximum value in dry season (July to October). September 2019 is found to have the highest trend of CO concentration affected Jambi region. As COVID-19 pandemic hit the whole world by end of year 2019, all the studied regions shown the decreasing trend after September 2019 and no high peak was observed during dry season (July to October) in 2020 and 2021. This is the combined effect of wetter dry season and an impact of lockdown implemented by government of Malaysia and Indonesia.
Andriani, H. (2020). Effectiveness of large-scale social restrictions (PSBB) toward the new normal era during COVID-19 outbreak: a mini policy review. Journal of Indonesian Health Policy and Administration, 5 (2), 61–65. (Crossref)
Anugerah, A. R., Muttaqin, P. S. & Purnama, D. A. (2021). Effect of large-scale social restriction (PSBB) during COVID-19 on outdoor air quality: Evidence from five cities in DKI Jakarta Province, Indonesia. Environmental Research, 197, 111164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111164 (Crossref)
Azhari, A., Mohamed, A. F. & Latif, M. T. (2016). Carbon emission from vehicular source in selected industrial areas in Malaysia. International Journal of the Malay World and Civilisation, 4 (1), 89–93.
BBC News (2019-10-16). Indonesia haze: Why do forests keep burning? Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34265922
Collivignarelli, M. C., Abbà, A., Bertanza, G., Pedrazzani, R., Ricciardi, P. & Miino, M. C. (2020). Lockdown for CoViD-2019 in Milan: What are the effects on air quality? Science of the Total Environment, 732, 139280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139280 (Crossref)
Fisher, J. A., Iscoe, S., Fedorko, L. & Duffin, J. (2011). Rapid elimination of CO through the lungs: coming full circle 100 years on. Experimental Physiology, 96 (12), 1262–1269. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2011.059428 (Crossref)
Freedman, A. (2019-09-23). Skies turn red across parts of Indonesia as crisis from fire-induced haze escalates. Washington Post. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/weather/2019/09/23/skies-turn-red-across-parts-indonesia-crisis-fire-induced-haze-escalates
Gelaro, R., McCarty, W., Suárez, M. J., Todling, R., Molod, A., Takacs, L., Randles, C. A., Darmenov, A., Bosilovich, M. G., Reichle, R. & Wargan, K. (2017). The modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications, version 2 (MERRA-2). Journal of Climate, 30 (14), 5419–5454. (Crossref)
Harris, S. (2020-03-22). Around the world, daily life comes to a near-halt as more governments impose restrictions on movement. Washington Post. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/around-the-world-daily-life-comes-to-a-near-halt-as-more-governments-impose-restrictions-on-movement/2020/03/22/39c4c12e-6b88-11ea-abef-020f086a3fab_story.html
Jong, H. N. (202-07-21). Indonesia eyes less severe fire season, but COVID-19 could turn it deadly. Mongabay. Retrieved from: https://news.mongabay.com/2021/07/indonesia-eyes-less-severe-fire-season-but-covid-19-could-turn-it-deadly
Kamarudin, W. F. W., Muhammud, A., Sa’ad, F. N. A. & Mustapha, R. I. P. R. (2019). Spatial and temporal CO concentration over Malaysia and Indonesia using 4 decades remote sensing dataset. TEM Journal, 8 (3), 836. https://doi.org/10.18421/TEM83-20
Kerimray, A., Baimatova, N., Ibragimova, O. P., Bukenov, B., Kenessov, B., Plotitsyn, P. & Karaca, F. (2020). Assessing air quality changes in large cities during COVID-19 lockdowns: The impacts of traffic-free urban conditions in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Science of the Total Environment, 730, 139179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139179 (Crossref)
Kiki, S. (2019-10-07). Fighting haze-causing forest fires in Indonesia’s Jambi province. Channel News Asia. Retrieved from: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asia/fighting-haze-causing-forest-fires-in-indonesia-s-jambi-province-11976620
Lavorel, S., Flannigan, M. D., Lambin, E. F. & Scholes, M. C. (2007). Vulnerability of Land Systems to Fire: Interactions Among Humans, Climate, the Atmosphere, and Ecosystems. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12 (1), 33–53. (Crossref)
Mahato, S., Pal, S. & Ghosh, K. G. (2020). Effect of lockdown amid COVID-19 pandemic on air quality of the megacity Delhi, India. Science of the Total Environment, 730, 139086. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139086 (Crossref)
Manisalidis, I., Stavropoulou, E., Stavropoulos, A. & Bezirtzoglou, E. (2020). Environmental and health impacts of air pollution: a review. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00014 (Crossref)
Nadzir, M. S. M., Ooi, M. C. G., Alhasa, K. M., Bakar, M. A. A., Mohtar, A. A. A., Nor, M. F. F. M., Latif, M. T., Hamid, H. H. A., Ali, S. H. M., Ariff, N. M., Anuar, J., Ahamad, F., Azhari, A., Hanif, N. M., Subhi, M. A., Othman, M. & Nor, M. Z. M. (2020). The impact of movement control order (MCO) during pandemic COVID-19 on local air quality in an urban area of Klang valley, Malaysia. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 20 (6), 1237–1248. (Crossref)
Perutz, M. F. (1990). Mechanisms regulating the reactions of human hemoglobin with oxygen and carbon monoxide. Annual Review of Physiology, 52 (1), 1–26. (Crossref)
Rajab, J. M., Tan, K. C., Lim, H. S. & Mat Jafri, M. Z. (2011). Investigation on the Carbon Monoxide Pollution over Peninsular Malaysia Caused by Indonesia Forest Fires from AIRS Daily Measurement. Advanced Air Pollution/Book, 1, 115–136.
Rana, A. D., Ali, M., Mahmood, K., Tariq, S. & Qayyum, Z. (2015). Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and its tropospheric variability over Pakistan using satellite-sensed data. Advances in Space Research, 56 (4), 583–595. (Crossref)
Taufik, K. (2020). Commentary: Little smoke this haze season – but fires rage on in Indonesia. Retrieved from: Channel News Asia. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/commentary/indonesia-forest-fire-peat-haze-palm-oil-jokowi-omnibus-bill-13533700
World Health Organization [WHO] (2021). WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19 Dashboard). Retrieved from: https://covid19.who.int
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.