Isolation, characterization and growth assessment of biodegrading chlorpyrifos-methyl Bacillus species isolated from Algerian soil

Main Article Content

Akila ABDI

Keywords : chlorpyrifos-methyl, Algerian agriculture lands, Bacillus genus, bacterial growth, bioremediation, soil pollution

Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM) is a broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticide, which is widely used in pest control. In this research, the isolation, and biochemical and molecular identification of bacterial strains obtained from three soils located in northeastern Algeria were carried out, as well as the evaluation of their ability to grow in the presence of CM. Out of 48 bacterial isolates between Gram-negative and Gram-positive identified, several were able to grow on mineral agar with at least 25 mg·l–1 of CM. Four bacteria showed the best growth capacity, were identified as Bacillus sp. H1-80, Brevibacterium frigoritolerans strain WJB99 and two Bacillus sp. strains GL5. The strains were tested for their ability to grow on liquid media with CM as the sole energy and carbon source. In general, these strains showed slow but significant growth visualized by the 600 nm turbidity control, suggesting that they could be used for bioremediation applications of CM polluted soils.

Article Details

How to Cite
SLIMANI, H., ABDI, A., & BRANES, Z. (2022). Isolation, characterization and growth assessment of biodegrading chlorpyrifos-methyl Bacillus species isolated from Algerian soil. Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Studies (SREES), 31(2), 135–146.

Abbassy, M. A., Salim, Y. M. M., Shawir, M. S. & Nassar, A. M. K. (2017). Disappearance and hazard quotient of chlorpyrifos-methyl, fipronil, and imidacloprid insecticides from dates. Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, 12 (3), 223–230. (Crossref)

Abigail, M. E. A., Samuel, S. M. & Ramalingam, C. (2015). Addressing the environmental impacts of butachlor and the available remediation strategies: a systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12 (12), 4025–4036. (Crossref)

Agarwal, P. K. & Pandey, D. I. V. Y. A. (2017). Impact of pesticide: an overview. Trends in Bioscience, 10 (6), 1341–1344.

Aktar, M. W., Sengupta, D. & Chowdhury, A. (2009). Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 2 (1), 1–2. (Crossref)

Anwar, S., Liaquat, F., Khan, Q. M., Khalid, Z. M. & Iqbal, S. (2009). Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by Bacillus pumilus strain C2A1. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168 (1), 400–405. (Crossref)

Aswathi, A., Pandey, A. & Sukumaran, R. K. (2019). Rapid degradation of the organophosphate pesticide – Chlorpyrifos by a novel strain of Pseudomonas nitroreducens AR-3. Bioresource Technology, 292, 122025. (Crossref)

Batisson, I., Crouzet, O., Besse-Hoggan, P., Sancelme, M., Mangot, J. F., Mallet, C. & Bohatier, J. (2009). Isolation and characterization of mesotrione-degrading Bacillus sp. from soil. Environmental Pollution, 157 (4), 1195–1201. (Crossref)

Bose, S., Kumar, P. S. & Vo, D. V. N. (2021). A review on the microbial degradation of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite TCP. Chemosphere, 283, 131447. (Crossref)

Bouziani, M. (2007). The immoderate use of pesticide. Serious health consequences. The guide of medicine and health. Maghreb Health. Retrieved from:

Briceño, G., Fuentes, M. S., Palma, G., Jorquera, M. A., Amoroso, M. J. & Diez, M. C. (2012). Chlorpyrifos biodegradation and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol production by actinobacteria isolated from soil. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 73, 1–7. (Crossref)

Choi, W. S. & Lee, S. E. (2016). Toxicity of chlorpyrifos‐methyl to S itophilus zeamais collected in K orea and biochemical differences. Entomological Research, 46 (1), 15–22. (Crossref)

Cycoń, M., Żmijowska, A., Wójcik, M. & Piotrowska-Seget, Z. (2013). Biodegradation and bioremediation potential of diazinon-degrading Serratia marcescens to remove other organophosphorus pesticides from soils. Journal of Environmental Management, 117, 7–16. (Crossref)

Das, S. & Adhya, T. K. (2015). Degradation of chlorpyrifos in tropical rice soils. Journal of Environmental Management, 152, 36–42. (Crossref)

Devers-Lamrani, M. (2008). Study of the mechanisms at the origin of the dispersion of the genes encoding the enzymes responsible for the mineralization of atrazine within the soil microflora (PhD thesis). French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Dijon.

El-Helow, E. R., Badawy, M. E., Mabrouk, M. E., Mohamed, E. A. & El-Beshlawy, Y. M. (2013). Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis strain, Y242. Bioremediation Journal, 17 (2), 113–123. (Crossref)

Farhan, M., Khan, A. U., Wahid, A., Ahmad, M. & Ahmad, F. (2012). Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos using indigenous Pseudomonas sp. isolated from industrial drain. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11 (12), 1183. (Crossref)

Foong, S. Y., Ma, N. L., Lam, S. S., Peng, W., Low, F., Lee, B. H., Alstrup, A. K. O. & Sonne, C. (2020). A recent global review of hazardous chlorpyrifos pesticide in fruit and vegetables: prevalence, remediation and actions needed. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 400, 123006. (Crossref)

Ghanem, I., Orfi, M. & Shamma, M. (2007). Biodegradation of chlorphyrifos by Klebsiella sp. isolated from an activated sludge sample of waste water treatment plant in damascus. Folia Microbiologica, 52 (4), 423–427. (Crossref)

Huang, Y., Zhang, W., Pang, S., Chen, J., Bhatt, P., Mishra, S. & Chen, S. (2021). Insights into the microbial degradation and catalytic mechanisms of chlorpyrifos. Environmental Research, 194, 110660. (Crossref)

Kim, J. R. & Ahn, Y. J. (2009). Identification and characterization of chlorpyrifos-methyl and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol degrading Burkholderia sp. strain KR100. Biodegradation, 20 (4), 487–497. (Crossref)

Kumar, S., Kaushik, G. & Villarreal-Chiu, J. F. (2016). Scenario of organophosphate pollution and toxicity in India: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23 (10), 9480–9491. (Crossref)

Liu, Z. Y., Chen, X., Shi, Y. & Su, Z. C. (2012). Bacterial degradation of chlorpyrifos by Bacillus cereus. Advanced Materials Research, 356, 676–680. (Crossref)

Mallick, K., Bharati, K., Banerji, A., Shakil, N. A. & Sethunathan, N. (1999). Bacterial degradation of chlorpyrifos in pure cultures and in soil. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 62 (1), 48–54. (Crossref)

Matthews, W. A. (1990). The fate of chlorpyrifos‐methyl in stored wheat: A comparison of a laboratory‐scale experiment with a pilot‐scale treatment. Pesticide Science, 30 (1), 21–29. (Crossref)

Maya, K., Singh, R. S., Upadhyay, S. N. & Dubey, S. K. (2011). Kinetic analysis reveals bacterial efficacy for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolyzing metabolite TCP. Process Biochemistry, 46 (11), 2130–2136. (Crossref)

Naik, S. N. & Prasad, R. (2006). Pesticide residue in organic and conventional food-risk analysis. Journal of Chemical Health & Safety, 13 (6), 12–19. (Crossref)

Ortiz-Hernández, M. L., Sánchez-Salinas, E., Dantán-González, E. & Castrejón-Godínez, M. L. (2013). Pesticide biodegradation: mechanisms, genetics and strategies to enhance the process. In R. Chamy & F. Rosenkranz (Eds), Biodegradation – Life of Science. IntechOpen. (Crossref)

Pankaj, Sharma, A., Gangola, S., Khati, P., Kumar, G. & Srivastava, A. (2016). Novel pathway of cypermethrin biodegradation in a Bacillus sp. strain SG2 isolated from cypermethrin-contaminated agriculture field. 3 Biotech, 6 (1), 1–11. (Crossref)

Rayu, S., Karpouzas, D. G. & Singh, B. K. (2012). Emerging technologies in bioremediation: constraints and opportunities. Biodegradation, 23 (6), 917–926. (Crossref)

Rayu, S., Nielsen, U. N., Nazaries, L. & Singh, B. K. (2017). Isolation and molecular characterization of novel chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol-degrading bacteria from sugarcane farm soils. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 518. (Crossref)

Rousseaux, S., Hartmann, A. & Soulas, G. (2001). Isolation and characterisation of new Gram-negative and Gram-positive atrazine degrading bacteria from different French soils. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 36 (2–3), 211–222. (Crossref)

Uniyal, S., Sharma, R. K. & Kondakal, V. (2021). New insights into the biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by a novel bacterial consortium: process optimization using general factorial experimental design. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 209, 111799. (Crossref)

Singh, B. K., Walker, A., Morgan, J. A. W. & Wright, D. J. (2004). Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by Enterobacter strain B-14 and its use in bioremediation of contaminated soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70 (8), 4855–4863. (Crossref)

Szpyrka, E., Matyaszek, A. & Słowik-Borowiec, M. (2017). Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb–insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24 (13), 12128–12135. (Crossref)

Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2011). MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28 (10), 2731–2739. (Crossref)

Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. G. (1997). The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 25 (24), 4876–4882. (Crossref)



Download data is not yet available.
Recommend Articles