Impact of dissolved oxygen on hospital wastewater quality treated by SBBR in Basrah city, Iraq

Main Article Content

Hussein JANNA

Keywords : hospital wastewater, SBBR, COD, laboratory experiment, TN, TSS, TP, DO

The hospitals close to the residences can make problems for the environment as a consequence of sewage drained into the water stream. Sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) offers advantages for treating sewage; such as simple operation, flexible process, and cost-effective. The laboratory bench-scale experiments were carried out treating hospital wastewater (HWW) of one of Basrah hospital city by a fabricated SBBR reactor of 26 l working volume. The hospital wastewater has the following characteristics (average values): pH 7.3, BOD equal to 280 mg·l–1, COD equal to 550 mg·l–1, total phosphorus (TP) equal to 6.4 mg·l–1, ammonia (NH3-N) equal to 44 mg·l–1 and total suspended solid (TSS) equal to 272 mg·l–1. This research aims to estimate the performance of the SBBR system for treating hospital wastewater to enhance different effluent parameters such as COD, total nitrogen (TN), ammonia, and total phosphorous (TP) with various dissolved oxygen (DO) with range of 2.15–6.55 mg·l–1, the best DO values give these removal efficiencies for COD equal to 84.55%, NH3-N equal to 65.91% and TN between 78 and 18% for DO equal to 3.67 mg·l–1, while TP removal efficiency was 79.70% for DO equal to 6.55 mg·l–1. By comparison of the SBBR effluent with international standards for effluent sewage, it noticed COD concentration 85 mg·l–1, TN 12 mg·l–1 and TP 1.3 mg·l–1 met all standards (European, WHO, and China), while NH3-N 15 mg·l–1 was outside WHO and European standards, while satisfies only Chinese standard.

Article Details

How to Cite
AL-REKABI, W. S., AL-KHAFAJI, S. A., & JANNA, H. (2022). Impact of dissolved oxygen on hospital wastewater quality treated by SBBR in Basrah city, Iraq. Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Studies (SREES), 31(1), 14–25.

Al-Rekabi, W. S., Al-Khafaji, S. A., Hassan, A. H. & Janna, H. (2021). Effectiveness of sequencing batch biofilm reactor technology to treat domestic wastewater in Basrah City. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 22 (8), 234–242. (Crossref)

American Public Health Association [APHA] (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington: American Public Health Association.

Dangcong, P., Bernet, N., Delgenes, J. P. & Moletta, R. (2001). Simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen removal in an SBR controlled at low dissolved oxygen concentration. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology: International Research in Process, Environmental & Clean Technology, 76 (6), 553–558. (Crossref)

Dinçer, A. R. & Kargi, F. (2001). Salt inhibition kinetics in nitrification of synthetic saline wastewater. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 28 (7–8), 661–665. (Crossref)

Gieseke, A., Arnz, P., Amann, R. & Schramm, A. (2002). Simultaneous P and N removal in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor: insights from reactor-and microscale investigations. Water Research, 36 (2), 501–509. (Crossref)

Jasem, Y. I., Jumaha, G. F. & Ghawi, A. H. (2018). Treatment of medical wastewater by moving bed bioreactor system. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 19 (3), 135–140. (Crossref)

Majlesi, N. M. (2001). Study of wastewater disposal status and effluent quality in hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences (Pejouhandeh), 6 (4), 371–376.

Marek, K., Pawęska, K. & Bawiec, A. (2021). Treatment of Wastewater with High Ammonium Nitrogen Concentration. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 22 (4), 224–231. (Crossref)

Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (2003). Wastewater engineering: treatment and reuse. Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Miège, C., Choubert, J. M., Ribeiro, L., Eusèbe, M. & Coquery, M. (2009). Fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants – conception of a database and first results. Environmental Pollution, 157 (5), 1721–1726. (Crossref)

Mishra, K., Sharma, A. & Sarita, A. S., Ayub, S. (2016). A study: biomedical waste management in India. IOSR Journal of Environment Science, Technology and Food Technology, 10 (5), 64–67.

Pathiraja, G., Egodawatta, P., Goonetilleke, A. & Te’o, V. S. J. (2019). Effective degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by a facultative anaerobic bacterial consortium using alternating anaerobic aerobic treatments. Science of the Total Environment, 659, 507–514. (Crossref)

Pochana, K., Keller, J. & Lant, P. (1999). Model development for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Water Science and Technology, 39 (1), 235–243. (Crossref)

Radha, K. V., Kalaivani, K. & Lavanya, R. (2009). A case study of biomedical waste management in hospitals. Global Journal of Health Science, 1 (1), 82–88.

Riesen, S. van (2004). European Wastewater Standards. Presentation at the Wasterwater Forum of IFAT China 2004: International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection.

Rong, H., Peng, Y., Zhang, C. & Fang, Q. (2008). Study on effect of aeration rate on biological phosphorus removal in sequencing batch biofilm reactor. China Water and Wastewater, 24 (5), 72–76.

Rittmann, B. E. (2018). Biofilms, active substrata, and me. Water Research, 132, 135–145. (Crossref)

Rusten, B., Eikebrokk, B., Ulgenes, Y. & Lygren, E. (2006). Design and operations of the Kaldnes moving bed biofilm reactors. Aquacultural Engineering, 34 (3), 322–331. (Crossref)

Schaar, H., Clara, M., Gans, O. & Kreuzinger, N. (2010). Micropollutant removal during biological wastewater treatment and a subsequent ozonation step. Environmental Pollution, 158 (5), 1399–1404. (Crossref)

Sharma, P., Mathur, N., Singh, A., Sogani, M., Bhatnagar, P., Atri, R. & Pareek, S. (2015). Monitoring hospital wastewaters for their probable genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187 (1), 4180. (Crossref)

Timraz, K., Xiong, Y., Al Qarni, H. & Hong, P. Y. (2017). Removal of bacterial cells, antibiotic resistance genes and integrase genes by on-site hospital wastewater treatment plants: surveillance of treated hospital effluent quality. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 3 (2), 293–303. (Crossref)

United Nations Children’s Fund [UNICEF] (2019). Multi-tiered approaches to solving the water crisis in Basra. New York: UNICEF.

World Health Organization [WHO] (2006). A compendium of standards for wastewater reuse in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Yong, Z. J., Bashir, M. J., Ng, C. A., Sethupathi, S. & Lim, J. W. (2018). A sequential treatment of intermediate tropical landfill leachate using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and coagulation. Journal of Environmental Management, 205, 244–252. (Crossref)

Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals [ZDHC] (2016). Textile industry wastewater discharge quality standards: literature review.

Zgórska, A. & Grabińska-Sota, E. (2019). Klasyfikacja toksyczności ścieków szpitalnych w odniesieniu do kryteriów ich szkodliwości względem biocenoz wodnych [The toxicity classyfication of hospital wastewater in relation to the criterion of their harmfulness in reference to water biocenosis]. Inżynieria Ekologiczna – Ecological Engineering, 20 (4), 5–13. (Crossref)

Zorita, S., Mårtensson, L. & Mathiasson, L. (2009). Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in a municipal sewage treatment system in the south of Sweden. Science of the Total Environment, 407 (8), 2760–2770. (Crossref)

Zupanc, M., Kosjek, T., Petkovšek, M., Dular, M., Kompare, B., Širok, B., Blažeka, Ž. & Heath, E. (2013). Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by biological processes, hydrodynamic cavitation and UV treatment. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 20 (4), 1104–1112. (Crossref)



Download data is not yet available.
Recommend Articles